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  • Wearing the Trousers: Fashion, Freedom and the Rise of the Modern Woman by Don Chapman

    As the first book to trace the history of the women’s rights movement through the prism of women’s dress, Wearing the Trousers: Fashion, Freedom and the Rise of the Modern Woman makes a fascinating curtain-raiser to the celebrations next year to mark the centenary of women gaining the vote.

    Mrs Amelia Bloomer Engraving of Mrs Amelia Bloomer, from the daguerreotype by T. W. Brown. (Water-Cure Journal 12, October 1851, p. 96) (Wearing the Trousers, Amberley Publishing)

    Women’s trousers, of course, have been everyday wear in the orient for centuries. But by promoting Turkish trousers in her American women’s rights and temperance journal, The Lily, in 1851 Mrs. Amelia Bloomer ignited a firestorm in the west. Central to the shock-horror of the idea was the notion, firmly entrenched in Victorian minds, that man was the dominant species in God’s creation, woman his inferior helpmate. The very thought of the latter adopting trousers was a threat to his authority.

    In an age when no journalist bothered his or her head about plagiarism the story went viral, rapidly crossed the Atlantic and within a few months was titillating and shocking readers in Australia and New Zealand. There was no television or Facebook to publicise what the press christened bloomers, no Twitter to provoke Likes or Dislikes. It was the entertainment industry that went into overdrive. Hack playwrights scribbled farces featuring the costume, Madame Tussauds featured waxworks wearing it, prostitutes and barmaids adopted it to attract customers, and Staffordshire Potteries even produced a figurine of Mrs. Bloomer sporting a cigar.

    I first became interested in what later became known as the rational dress movement — rational being the Victoria buzzword for any idea right-minded people should adopt — in 1971. At the height of the hot pant craze an Oxford Mail reader came to me with his grandparents’ papers relating to the Western Rational Dress Club. It made three stories for the daily column I wrote for the paper, primarily because in 1897 the grandfather, the eminent Victorian geologist, Sydney Savory Buckman, helped organise a rational dress cycle ride from London to Oxford. The date he and his fellow-organiser chose it was blowing a gale and raining in torrents: the last ladies arrived for an 8.30pm dinner at 3.30am the next morning!

    Really I said the subject deserved a book and at last I’ve written it. At its heart it is the story of two unsung heroines of the women’s rights movement, neither of them militant feminists, both of them passionate champions of women’s liberation. The first was Caroline Dexter, an obscure but surprisingly well- connected Nottingham woman. In the autumn of 1851 she toured the length and breadth of Britain drawing audiences of up to 4,000 to her lectures promoting the virtues of trousers, inveighing against constricting corsets and voluminous crinolines.

    Caroline Dexter Caroline Dexter, daguerreotype. (Art in Australia 15 February 1931) (Wearing the Trousers, Amberley Publishing)

    After she emigrated to Australia in 1854 she declared: ‘I do not trouble myself about what “woman’s rights” may be... I have lamented and fear that I shall still have to lament the… evils resulting from “woman’s wrongs”… Women have a higher destiny than a mere maker of puddings and sewer on of buttons.’

    The craze was comparatively short-lived. Critics blamed its demise on the notorious Bloomer Ball in Hanover Square, London, in the autumn of 1851 when nearly all the few women who turned up were of questionable character and some of the disappointed males resorted to fisticuffs. Or, like Mrs. Dexter, they attributed its decline to the numerous actresses and other cheapjack entertainers who jumped on the bandwagon.

    But male chauvinism persisted and Bloomerism became a stick to beat the growing army of forward-thinking females campaigning for equal rights. Away from the public gaze women taking the water cure continued to wear trousers. In occupations like coal-sorting, fishing and agriculture they remained more serviceable than skirts. As more women took to sport the braver of them realised it improved their mobility whether they were playing tennis, climbing mountains or simply taking a walk.

    The second woman to promote rational dress was Lady Harberton. Sensitive to the ridicule Bloomerism had provoked, in 1880 she launched a campaign for what she called the divided skirt —NOT trousers! She insisted: ‘Women are far too much afraid of what others may say and think. They do not like to go to a theatre or concert alone in case people should think it odd; but if everyone did it there would be nothing odd about it.’

    In 1881 she became president of the Rational Dress Society, which in due course boasted its own quarterly magazine, the Rational Dress Society’s Gazette, edited by Mrs Oscar Wilde. That lasted only six issues and in the 1890s the Society itself fizzled out as a result of the ridicule its members attracted, but thanks to my reader’s grandfather and the publicity the ill-fated cycle ride to Oxford attracted a year later the movement revived, the Rational Dress League came into being and soon had its own journal, the Rational Dress Gazette.

    Lady Harberton Lady Harberton riding in the rational dress costume she didn’t like and replaced. (Lady Cyclist 21 January 1897, courtesy of cycling historian Sheila Hanlon) (Wearing the Trousers, Amberley Publishing)

    Sydney Buckman’s interest in rational dress was personal. It enabled his wife and four daughters to accompany him and his four sons from their home in Cheltenham on cycling expeditions in search of fossils in the Cotswolds. That work brought few rewards. His far-sighted ideas were too hard for most of the geological establishment to swallow. He earned most of his income from freelance journalism. Hence his enthusiastic promotion of the Western Rational Dress Club, of which Lady Harberton became president.

    She was a surprisingly late convert to cycling, the activity that added a whole new dimension to the women’s rights and rational dress movements. She was already in her fifties when she first took to the wheel in 1895. She rapidly became an energetic cyclist and in October 1898 provoked the case for which her name would go down to history by cycling from London to Ockham in Surrey and demanding lunch at the Hautboy Hotel.

    The landlady refused to serve her in rationals in the coffee room and insisted she eat in the bar. ‘Of course it was physically possible for me to have lunched [there],’ she told Buckman. ‘So one might in a pigsty!’ The Cyclists Touring Club, which had an agreement with the hotel, took up the case and the following May sued the landlady for failing to provide victuals to a traveller. Martha Jane Sprague got backing from The Road, a journal that was worried about the impact the bicycle was having on the horse trade. Its lawyers were a great deal savvier than the CTC’s, arguing that the landlady had not refused to serve Lady H lunch, only done so in a room she did not like.

    Such was the worldwide interest the case excited, it was the only thing most journalists remembered when they came to write her obituary. A pity. She was active in a great many spheres from funeral reform to women’s health and in particular deserves greater recognition for her lifelong interest in the women’s rights movement. She rubbed shoulders with everyone involved from Barbara Bodichon to the Pankhurst family, led one of their deputations to parliament, campaigned tirelessly throughout her adult life for votes for women and, exasperated with the Liberal Establishment’s failure to act, late in life withdrew her backing from every other body and devoted her giving to the Suffragette cause.

    She died in 1911 as a result of her doctors’ failure to diagnose a fracture to her arm that became septic. Had she lived she would have welcomed women taking to trousers in 1914 to aid the war effort. She would have thought it only right the Government should reward them by granting women over 30 the vote in 1918, but one senses she would not have been completely happy until they achieved parity with men ten years later. As for rational dress, the last article she wrote appeared in the vegetarian journal, the Herald of Health, a month after her death championing what she now called the Syrian skirt.

    By a bitter irony Syria is one of the countries where the Taliban and Islamic State are now banning women from wearing trousers, insisting they swap the garments they have worn for centuries for the shapeless abaya.

    9781445669502

    Don Chapman's new book Wearing the Trousers: Fashion, Freedom and the Rise of the Modern Woman is available for purchase now.

  • The Severn Estuary Crossings by Chris Witts

    The Severn Estuary Crossings 1 The long walk across the Severn. (Tim Ryan collection, The Severn Estuary Crossings, Amberley Publishing)

    Many years ago the Severn Estuary, with the second highest tidal range in the world, was a barrier between two nations. Powerful tides made crossing the estuary very difficult even though great engineers like Thomas Telford once spoke of bridging this dangerous river.

    Until the Severn Bridge was opened in 1966 the only way to cross the Severn Estuary was by ferry or railway tunnel. Telford’s plan for a bridge was far too expensive thus the railway tunnel was built. From 1926 until the Severn Bridge opened, the Old Passage Severn Ferry Co. Ltd. Operated from Aust to Beachley. Motorists faced either waiting in a long queue to join the ferry or a tiring 60 mile journey via Gloucester. In 1958 construction began on the new Severn Bridge between Aust and Beachley, with a design that has since been copied on similar bridges throughout the world.

    The Severn Estuary Crossings 3 The Severn Bridge painted white. (The Severn Estuary Crossings, Amberley Publishing)

    As traffic increased it became apparent that a new bridge was needed and in 1966 the Second Severn Crossing was opened, becoming the longest river crossing in Britain.

    Chris Witts in his book has sourced many photographs, both colour and black & white, showing the Aust ferry and the building of both the Severn Bridge and Second Severn Crossing. His stunning photographs taken recently show what a remarkable feat of engineering both bridges are as they grace the skyline across the Severn Estuary.

    9781445669021

    Chris Witts' new book The Severn Estuary Crossings is available for purchase now.

  • The Natal Campaign - 'Kitchener’s Concentration Camps' by Hugh Rethman

    The Natal Campaign 1 Boer children standing in front of their school at Merebank Concenration Camp. (Author's collection)

    When General Kitchener described the refugee camps for Boer civilians as ‘Concentration Camps’, an enormous PR blunder was commited. Of course he did not know that 40 years later Hitler would use the same words to describe his death camps, a situation which has been exploited to the full by the Boers and Britain’s enemies. For example ‘an entire generation of Afrikaners (Boers) perished in them’ [1]. And ‘the British were the first to dream up this perversity; Hitler only perfected them.’ [2]

    After the Boers were driven out of Natal and had suffered a series of defeats in set piece battles, they adopted guerrilla tactics. This meant that they left their wives and families in the custody of the British. This they were only too happy to do, their commander Gen Louis Botha saying to Gen de Wet, ‘we are only too thankful nowadays to know our wives are under English protection’ [3]. They had left the welfare of the entire non-combatant population of their Republics to the care of the British Army, an enormous humanitarian task.

    The Natal Campaign 2 Hospital at Merebank Concentration Camp. (Author's collection)

    The Army had to act as a welfare agency which not only provided protection, food and shelter for these people, but also provided schools for the children, hospitals for the sick etc, and all this had to be done in wartime conditions with the Boers constantly attacking British supply lines. Epidemics were sweeping the land, killing indiscriminately. Entry to the British camps was voluntary and many of those entering were seriously ill on arrival and apart from anything else introduced further illness [4]. The British army was not immune to the ravages of disease. Over twelve thousand soldiers died and sixty-six thousand were invalided back to Britain. These were fit young men in their prime whereas those entering the camps included the elderly and very young [5].

     

    As happens today, mistakes were made and when these became known a Ladies Committee was formed to investigate the alleged failings, which were promptly corrected by Lord Kitchener. In their report the Ladies, after detailing the faults which they had found in the organization of the camps, went on to report, ‘But in estimating the causes of bad health in the camps it is necessary to put on record the insanitary habits of the people….Their inability to see that what may be criminally dangerous in camp is part of the inadaptability to circumstance which constitutes so marked a characteristic of the people.’  The Commission went on to report, ‘Large numbers of the deaths in the concentration camps have been directly and obviously caused by noxious compounds given by Boer women to their children’ [6]. However it was the epidemics rife in South Africa at that time which was the principal cause of deaths in the camps. These peaked in October, 1901.

    The Natal Campaign 3 Inmates at Merebank Concentration Camp receiving the news that a Peace Accord had been signed. They could easily be a group of people going to the races at Royal Ascot and have no resemblance whatsoever to scenes which greeted the Allied forces when they liberated the Camps in Germany at the end of WW2. (Author's collection)

    Boers also set up Camps to care for their civilians. General Smuts said this about them, ‘I cannot help saying that I had never expected to be a witness of such scenes of misery. The women and children, suffering almost everyone of them from malaria, fever, and other diseases in consequence of privations and bad food, without physicians, without medicines, without any consolation in this world, almost without any clothes, and after hostile raids, without any food at all’ [ 7].

    Mr Keizer was a prominent civil servant in the Transvaal before and during the War being Landrost (Chief Magistrate) of Standerton in the Eastern Transvaal. He was interned when the British overran the district and was placed duly in the concentration camp at Standerton. Because of the respect in which the local Boers held him, the British appointed him head of the camp. A few years after the war he wrote to a colonial friend stating: ‘Why don’t you English demand a commission before it is too late to enquire into all this talk and lies about the camps. If the British were so beastly, why did they put me in charge of the Standerton Camp? – I can assure you there was nothing to complain of there.’ [8].

    9781445664217

    Hugh Rethman's new book The Natal Campaign: A Sacrifice Betrayed is available for purchase now.


    1. Gillings, ‘A Man of his Time’, 77.
    2. Johannesburg Sunday Times. 10.2.2013.
    3. Gen C. de Wet, ‘Three Years War’, 428/429.
    4. C. Martin, ‘The Concentration Camps’, 17.
    5. C. Martin, ‘Ibid’, 15.
    6. C. Martin, ‘Ibid’ 43.
    7. C. Martin, ‘Ibid’ 13/14.
    8. Papers ex Natal Carbineer R.J. Mason.
  • Secret Kendal by Andrew Graham Stables

    Secret Kendal 1 Brigsteer Road with Kendal sign and racecourse in background. (Secret Kendal, Amberley Publishing)

    As I wrote this blog I became aware it was exactly 196 years since the first horse race was held on Kendal Racecourse on 7th August 1821 and I further recognized in my previous book about Penrith, and my future book looking at Teesdale, they all feature redundant racecourses. To the west of Kendal, off Brigsteer Road and below Scout Scar, are the remnants of Kendal Racecourse. The site, originally called Fishers Plain was built by raising a subscription from wealthy locals and after that first race meeting in August, there followed a three day meeting every June.

    The stand out race was the Kendal Gold Cup with a substantial first prize of £50 and the first ever winner was called Miss Syntax, owned by Lord Queensberry.  The last meeting of this first spell was held in 1834 with further meetings held from 1879–82 and offered both ‘flat’ and ‘hurdle’ races over 2 miles. It was also used for different events like the Kendal Steeple Chase, and some racing was held during the First World War, but it was generally abandoned thereafter.

    Secret Kendal 2 Kendal racecourse. (Secret Kendal, Amberley Publishing)

    Other uses have included practice ground for the Kendal/Westmorland Yeomanry and even the establishment of a small golf course for a short time. Still clearly visible as a raised flat platform, the site can be accessed from a public footpath and other remnants include entrance gates, raised banks for racegoers to stand and rubble from old buildings.

    Penrith racecourse was located off Salkeld Road to the north of the town and was in use from the 1770’s until 1847. The principle races were the Penrith Town Plate, the Cavalry Cup and the Inglewood Hunt 5 Guineas Sweepstake until it was used as practice ground for the Kendal/Westmorland Yeomanry. Eventually in 1890 the course was converted into a golf course with the old stand converted to a clubhouse.

     

     

    Secret Kendal 3 The racecourse and public access. (Secret Kendal, Amberley Publishing)

    Finally, the racecourse celebrated as the greatest course in the north of England was located at Gatherley Moor, just off the A66 and was regarded as the Newmarket of the north with royalty buying horses and racing in this famous field. Races were held here from at least the 15th century and the area was well renowned for breeding from the local stud farms. George III is said to have exclaimed on his deathbed, 'Oh for a gasp of Gatherley air!' with the moor being on his usual route to or from Scotland. Gatherley Moor remained a renowned hunting ground and race course until the 1816 enclosure act. The area is now cultivated land with little evidence of its illustrious past.

    9781445668048

    Andrew Graham Stables' book Secret Kendal is available for purchase now.

  • Cornwall in Photographs by Gabriel Fuchs

    Cornwall in Photographs - Golitha Falls Golitha Falls on Bodmin Moor. (Cornwall in Photographs, Amberley Publishing)

    So what’s so special about Cornwall? Few places in Europe are as awe-inspiring. It is an ancient Celtic land and as such has inspired tales and legends ever since. It has a dramatic nature with treacherous cliffs, sandy beaches, and mysterious moors. It was a gateway to the rest of the world when the English ruled the waves, and a mining centre during the Industrial Revolution, which very much lay the foundation of what we now call western modernity. Today it is the sum of its history, with a foot left in what it used to be.

    Cornwall is indeed a peculiar place on the far south-western fringes of Great Britain. It has a relatively small population of around 550,000 and it has only one officially designated city, Truro. Yet, Cornwall has the largest collection of plant species in the British Isles and its coasts boast more varieties of fish than anywhere else in the UK.

    Cornwall in Photographs - Polperro Polperro. (Cornwall in Photographs, Amberley Publishing)

    Cornwall is also one of only two royal duchies in England. The Duchy of Cornwall was created in 1337 and its purpose is to provide an income to the heir apparent to the throne. As such, Cornwall can be regarded as the mother of all trust funds.

    Considered to be one of the six Celtic nations, Cornwall offers a culture that remains somewhat different from the rest of England. Being out in a corner of Great Britain and with a distinct geography, Cornwall possesses a combination of a rough coastline, barren moors, and plenty of gardens in between. All of these factors make Cornwall distinctly different not only from the rest of the UK, but from the rest of the world.

    Cornwall in Photographs - Porthcothan Sunset at Porthcothan. (Cornwall in Photographs, Amberley Publishing)

    Furthermore, the weather is changeable even by British standards and it is perfectly possible to have pouring rain, clear blue sky, and then pouring rain again, all within an hour. This means that forecasting the weather is actually not much of a problem; just look out the window. A Cornish weather forecast is rarely more precise than what you see with your own eyes.

    No matter what the weather, having the longest coastline in Great Britain, Cornwall tends to be windy. As the wind usually comes from the Atlantic in the west, it is striking to see how trees are leaning to the east, being pushed by these winds. If one gets lost in Cornwall it is possible to navigate just by looking at the trees.

    Cornwal in Photographs - Lands End Land's End. (Cornwall in Photographs, Amberley Publishing)

    Given its harsh and unique nature, Cornwall remains an inspiration for painters and writers alike. Many tales and legends have taken place in Cornwall, including the mystical King Arthur and the sunken country of Lyonesse from where Tristan came. There are also a great deal of crime stories in Cornwall, which is ironic given that there are no prisons – the last one closed in 1922.

    The combination of a splendidly desolate landscape, a rich fauna, some magnificent beaches, and trees leaning to the east – this prohibiting anyone from getting really lost – attracts tourists of all kinds. There are the families, the hikers, the sea-sport enthusiasts, the birdwatchers, the photographers, the artists and the writers. All are kept at an even pace, thanks to the narrow and winding roads that rarely allow anyone to get anywhere too quickly.

    The photos in this book represent a bit of everything that Cornwall has to offer in terms of nature, activities, and beauty. Not all photos are sunny and with a blue sky because it does rain in Cornwall too. However, few things can be as moody and impressive as a good rainstorm when the waves come crushing in on desolate rocks. This combination of sun, rain, and wind is, to many, what really makes Cornwall stand out. And stand out it does!

    9781445671246

    Gabriel Fuchs' new book Cornwall in Photographs is available for purchase now.

  • Classic Trucks by Roy Dodsworth

    Classic Trucks 1 This is a 1927 Thornycroft 2.5-ton truck registered in Somerset. It has a 27 horsepower petrol engine, averages 20–25 mph and returns 6 miles per gallon average. Vehicle purchased by Frederic Robinson Ltd in November 1980, at the time in livery of Irwell St Metal Co. of Ramsbottom. Restored and repainted in the livery of similar Robinsons vehicles at the turn of the century. I took this picture on a visit to the brewery. The registration YC 1176 was issued on 8 November 1927. (Classic Trucks, Amberley Publishing)

    Published in 2017, as the titles suggest this book is about trucks, wagons, lorries or commercials. Each of the four words means the same but varies in regions.

    In the letters pages of Trucks, Wagons, Lorries or Commercials magazines there is regular argument about which is correct. Example the 70+ year old strongly argues that he, sometimes she, was a wagon driver. The 30+ individuals argue that they are truckers! I chose ‘Commercials’ because in my view the word encompasses all four types.

    The vision is that it is a load carrying vehicle and whether you are 9 or 90 I suggest that you all can recall one. Be it the dustbin wagon or drain cleaner. Without any the world could not function.

    To move on there is interest from an early age, Dinky Toys and the like, to senior citizens who take pleasure seeing them, and recalling memories of seeing and driving them.

    40 or 50 years ago driving them was a feat of strength and stamina, no power steering, automatic gearboxes or air conditioning. The driver had to be well wrapped up, strong to turn the wheel, change gear, and used to cold without a heater. The modern truck is equipped with all the latest ‘gismos’ giving the old guys the impression that steering them is all that is required!

    Classic Trucks 2 A 1938 Albion LB40 two-axle rigid, fitted with a petrol engine, it has a flat platform body which is carrying an authentic textile load of bales of rags and skip baskets. In the livery of C. & C. Textiles, Rag Merchants of Barnsley. Note the starting handle secured with a rubber band to the front. Albion Motors were manufacturers of car, truck and buses in Scotstoun, Glasgow, Scotland. They became part of British Leyland and the name was dropped, with later vehicles badged as Leyland. The company now manufacture axles. The registration WE 3735 was issued in Sheffield on 23 January 1939. (Classic Trucks, Amberley Publishing)

    So preserved and restored commercials are part of our heritage and there are thousands of enthusiasts up and down the country who look after them, be it car, truck or bus.

    There are many owners and enthusiast clubs who organise events so that other people can enjoy them. As an added interest there are specialist magazines catering for all matters of interest connected with classic vehicles.

    I attend as many events as I can in the North of England and photograph as many vehicles as I can on the showground. There are still old vehicles earning their keep on daily work, ‘asleep’ somewhere awaiting restoration, or abandoned to their fate.

    I have written lots of articles for club magazines and the commercial press and I am constantly being asked ‘will my truck be in?’

    Early August I attended the Trans Pennine Run 2017, this was the 49th event and over 200 entrants too part. I took over 300 photographs. I then have the task of editing and selecting vehicles for future articles. Having made a selection I have sent them off to club magazines and the monthly specialist magazines. Such articles are keenly awaited by the readers to see ‘if they are in.’

    So over the years I have amassed a collection of almost 20,000 photographs of buses, cars, and trucks, some black and white, pre-digital and digital. They are all categorised on my home computer.

     

    Classic Trucks 3 This is a 1976 Bedford TK horsebox, registered WSG 268R, in Edinburgh; an unusual vehicle, which was new to Scottish & Newcastle Brewery as a Chinese Six brewer’s dray. This means that a two-axle TK had been converted to a three-axle vehicle with twin-steering front two axles – not unusual for brewery delivery vehicles. The vehicle was restored by the present owner, James Leech & Co., with the third axle being removed and the vehicle fitted with a Jennings of Sandbach wooden horsebox. (Classic Trucks, Amberley Publishing)

    A further source, albeit rare, is finding an old album of black and white photographs at such places as antique fairs and flea markets. A recent find by me was an album of 80+ black and white photographs from the 50’s and 60’s. This was on a market stall at Todmorden, West Yorkshire. I paid £30 for them but well worth it for the pleasure they gave to lots of people who had the chance to see them. The ownership was unknown but they created a lot of interest and comment when scanned and published. It is always pleasing to be told ‘my dad drove one of them, or I worked on them for 40 years.’

    Having agreed with Amberley to write a book it was very difficult to make a selection of up to 210 photographs. I spent considerable time preparing a draft which I had to change a couple of times, also some pictures were not suitable for printing making a further reshuffle necessary. Eventually ‘bang on’ all was sent off and the show was on the road. A couple of proofs were read with minor alterations made then the long wait to publishing date. My only thought now the book has been done is that the contents will be appreciated and enjoyed by the reader.

    I now wish to thank all clubs, and event organisers for arranging classic events, also to vehicle owners and restorers for allowing us to enjoy them, and to all at Amberley books for putting the book together and making it happen!

    9781445674407

    Roy Dodsworth's book Classic Trucks is available for purchase now.

  • Who Betrayed the Jews? The realities of Nazi persecution in the Holocaust by Agnes Grunwald-Spier

    Who Betrayed the Jews 1 Author’s mother (far right) with her parents, Rosa and Armin Klein, and sisters, 1932. The photograph was taken to celebrate their twentieth wedding anniversary. (Author’s collection, Who Betrayed the Jews? The realities of Nazi persecution in the Holocaust, Amberley Publishing)

    When I was writing about Holocaust Rescuers I was overwhelmed by the courage and generosity of spirit of the rescuers. However, there was one person who really shocked me and that was a Belgian traitor called Prosper de Zitter who betrayed members of the resistance and allied airmen trying to get home. I wondered how he could deliberately lead someone into a Gestapo trap knowing he was leading them to their probable death. I began to ponder the meaning of betrayal and treachery.

    I thought about my maternal grandfather, Armin Klein, who refused to leave Hungary. He asked my Mother: ‘Why should I leave my native land?’ He had a misplaced faith that his native land would be safe. The answer which only came later – was that ‘you are a Jew and you will die in Auschwitz in 1944 without even a chance to know your fate and say goodbye to your family. You will die around the time your first grandchild is born – the birth you were so excited about.’ Armin was sitting on a bus in Budapest in mid-1944 when it was stopped and all the Jews were taken off and sent to Auschwitz, where he is believed to have died almost immediately.

    Who Betrayed the Jews 2 Valuables from Berlin in sacks found in Merkers Salt mine. (USHMM, Who Betrayed the Jews? The realities of Nazi persecution in the Holocaust, Amberley Publishing)

    As I, that first grandchild, investigated the field I was shocked by what I found. I have lived with the Holocaust all my life, 73 years, but I was unaware of the economic aspects of the Holocaust. An exhibition organized by the Leipzig City Museum in 2009 was entitled “‘Aryanization’ in Leipzig. Driven out. Robbed. Murdered”. How true that was because the Jews were robbed before they were killed. The variety of ways devised by the Nazis to do this were numerous and innovative.

    This book is not intended to be, nor can it be, a comprehensive narrative of the Holocaust. It’s almost a scrapbook of the Holocaust. Its intention is to give readers an insight into the horrors of the Holocaust – by looking at the different forms of betrayal that took place – how the noose was tightened round the neck of the poor trapped Jews. The physical and economic strangulation took place over the years and finally those that survived to get to the camps were de-personalized and starved, tortured and worked to death.

     

    Who Betrayed the Jews 3 Offenbach book depot. (Courtesy of Yad Vashem, Who Betrayed the Jews? The realities of Nazi persecution in the Holocaust, Amberley Publishing)

    There is no shortage of information and I was snowed under with it all. However some people even, at this late stage chose not to divulge their stories, which is sad because if not recorded they will be lost – less ammunition against the Holocaust deniers. Some stories I received were very brief – from child survivors who knew very little. A lifetime’s tragedy in half a sentence – and no one else left to ask. My friend Renée Fink from America told me ‘My parents were hiding in Holland and were betrayed’. The only information she had was that they were living on a boat on the Loosdrechtse Plasse in 1942. Their names were Edit and Fritz Laser and they had come to Holland from Germany in 1933. 1 Fritz was born in Königsberg on 30 May 1896 and Edit in Breslau on 15 July 1911. Edith was sent to Auschwitz via Westerbork where she was killed on 19 May 1943 aged 32. Fritz died on 31 March 1944 but the town where he died is not known.2 Fortunately they were farsighted and brave enough to hand their precious daughter over to the Dutch Underground. ‘I was placed with a Catholic family of eight children (I made the ninth).  They took me for the duration of the war, sharing what little they had with me and endangering every one of them each and every day for hiding me.  I loved them all and wanted to stay.  And you know I’m sure they would have continued to make a home for me.’3

    I am not an academic. I am at 73 one of the youngest Holocaust survivors. I embarked on this book because I am horrified by what I see around me today – those that deny the Holocaust ever happened or those that denigrate what it actually was; those who have no idea of the intricacies of its conception or implementation. I was first awoken to this detail in the 1990s by my dear mentor, Professor Aubrey Newman, who spoke at a conference about men in suits looking at plans for the crematoria and calculating the throughput to be processed per day. Not counting boxes of baked beans or packets of rice, but gassed Jews whose bodies were to be burnt leaving only the ashes of whole communities. This book is meant for those that compare the Holocaust to relatively trivial events, which bear no comparison – because no other genocide bears comparison.

    9781445671185

    Agnes Grunwald-Spier's new book Who Betrayed the Jews? The realities of Nazi persecution in the Holocaust is available for purchase now.


     

    1 Renée Fink, e mails to author 3 and 4 January 2013.

    2 Dutch Jewish records, accessed 24 March 2014, http://www.joodsmonument.nl/person/473082/en?lang=en

    3 Renee Fink, e mail to author, 23 March 2014.

  • Photographing Models and Miniatures by Paul Brent Adams

    Photographing Models and Miniatures 2 Lledo RNLI Tyne Class lifeboat. This is a full hull model, and normally sits in a plastic cradle. Depicting such models in the water is more difficult than with waterline models, as the lower hull has to be hidden. (Photographing Models and Miniatures, Amberley Publishing)

    Once upon a time, model photography was hard work, and required some fairly sophisticated and expensive equipment, even for basic shots. This usually meant a 35 mm Single Lens Reflex camera. Today, a small and cheap digital compact camera is capable of producing high quality close-up photographs, without the need for any extra lenses or other special equipment. The cameras are highly automated, so you can leave the technical side of photography: aperture, exposure, etc, to the camera, and concentrate on composing the photographs.

    Photographing Models and Miniatures 3 Corgi Aston Martin DB5 posed on a simple grass mat, sold in model shops. Features such as opening doors can be shown both open and closed. (Photographing Models and Miniatures, Amberley Publishing)

    Photographs can be taken against a plain background if you just want to catalogue your collection or sell online; or complete miniature worlds can be created for a more realistic look from a city street, to forests and mountains, or outer space. You can use readymade scenery items, or make your own, often using items that most people would throw away – used tealeaves are very versatile. As a modeller and collector, rather than a photographer, this is the part I enjoy the most – but even non-modellers can produce simple and cheap backgrounds and settings for their models. The photographs show some typical examples.

     

    Photographing Models and Miniatures 1 The Canon PowerShot A490 camera is so clever it can even take a self-portrait, with the aid of a mirror. The result will be a mirror image, but this can be flipped in an image-editing programme so everything is the right way round. The camera screws to the tripod, which is adjustable. The background is a large sheet of Woodland Scenics ReadyGrass grass mat. (Photographing Models and Miniatures, Amberley Publishing)

    I only bought my first digital camera after my 35 mm film camera died, and I needed a replacement. I soon found how easy it was to use, much easier than a big 35 mm SLR. The most basic cameras may not have the features needed for close-up photography, but my Canon PowerShot A490 certainly does. You need the ability to focus on small items at close range; a socket for a tripod; a self-timer; and a modest zoom range. The small size and light weight of a digital compact also makes it easier to use in a limited space. The only extra equipment needed is a small tripod to hold the camera steady during the long exposure times often required in close-up work. Table-top tripods can be bought in any camera shop, and are not expensive. Get a good sturdy model, which will not tip over, even with the camera angled well down. If you do not have a tripod, just rest the camera on a block of wood.

    Photographing Models and Miniatures 8 Even a very simple painted background makes this lion look more at home. A piece of coloured card is finished with streaks and blobs of green and brown paint. It is not intended to be anything specific, and a background such as this requires no painting skill at all. (Photographing Models and Miniatures, Amberley Publishing)

    Most of my working methods would probably appal real photography buffs, but I get the results I want, and have fun doing it. All my photographs are taken indoors, by a window, using natural light. This means I do not have to contend with the wind, or complicated lighting set-ups. With the light usually coming from only one direction, one side of the model is well lit, while the other side may be in shadow. A reflector – a simple piece of stiff white card – is used to bounce light back into the areas in shadow. This makes a surprising difference with many shots. Pressing the shutter can disturb the camera, even when it is mounted on a tripod. Using the self-timer means there is a slight delay between pressing the shutter, and taking the photograph, reducing the chances of camera shake. The A490 has two standard settings, or you can select your own – the two-second setting is fine. If you want your photos to have a 'period' look, the camera settings can be adjusted to take black and white or sepia shots. This suits some subjects more than others.

    Photographing Models and Miniatures 14 The roadway is grey card, with the building sitting on a grass mat. The clouds are painted on blue card, using white and grey acrylic paints. (Photographing Models and Miniatures, Amberley Publishing)

    Over the years I have built up a collection of backgrounds and props for model photography. Some of these I have bought in model or toy shops; adapted from old toys or household items; built from kits; or made from odds and ends. One of the best general purpose backgrounds - suitable for most types of models - is a grass mat. Sold in model shops, this is a sheet of paper or plastic, covered with a grass-like material. Some brands do shed their 'grass' very quickly, but the American Woodland Scenics range is very good, and the sheets are available in a range of sizes, and grass shades. A piece of fine green material would be an alternative. Printed backscences are available in model railway shops, in a range of sizes. The ones I use are by the British company Peco. Even if you have no artistic skill you can still paint your own; fluffy white clouds can be dabbed onto a sheet of plain blue card with a sponge; or distant hills streaked on, again with a piece of sponge, using various shades of green. Model trees and loose 'clump foliage' can be bought in model shops, which is easier than making your own. These can help to disguise the transition between the three-dimensional foreground, and a two-dimensional background. One way to give the illusion of great depth to a scene is to place smaller scale models behind the main subject: being smaller they will appear to be further away. These are many simple tricks like this that can be used to make your photographs more realistic.

    At the end of each session, all my equipment has to be packed away in a drawer or cupboard, as I do not have a permanent photographic studio. All the photographs here were taken with this simple set-up. Photography does not need to be complicated and expensive; it can be simple, cheap, and fun.

    9781445662541

    Paul Brent Adams' book Photographing Models and Miniatures is available for purchase now.

  • Diesels at Doncaster by Andrew Walker

    Diesels at Doncaster 1 Numerous freight flows cross the East Coast Main Line at Doncaster, and prior to the contraction of the coal industry, a significant proportion of this traffic looked very much like this – a somewhat grubby No. 31321 grinds across from up fast to the Sheffield lines with a mixed consist of loaded 16- and 21-ton wagons in 1982. (Diesels at Doncaster, Amberley Publishing)

    How long is thirty-five years? Is it a long time or a short time? If you are a teenager then it probably seems like an age. You associate it with old people. If however you are an old person, or even a middle-aged person, it may not seem that long. I am a middle-aged person. I used to think thirty-five years was an enormous length of time, but now I don’t think like that. I accept that it is quite a long time, but I base my view on the perception that thirty-five years can seem to pass quite quickly. I think if you can vividly remember things that happened thirty-five years ago, then that, among other things, is what makes it seem to be a fairly short period.

    I am focusing on this particular passage of time here because as I write in 2017 it is thirty-five years since the Deltics were withdrawn from main line service in 1982. To we ‘fifty-somethings’ this seems absurd. How can it be so long ago? It’s half a lifetime, more or less.

    Let’s go back to 1982 and consider what thirty-five years felt like then. First and foremost, the Deltics themselves had not been around for anything like that length of time. Ignoring the prototype, ‘Deltic’, for a moment, the production locomotives had clocked up a mere twenty-one years in service.

    I think these days we’d probably consider a twenty-one year old locomotive to have many years of work ahead of it. Standing on the platform at Doncaster on New Year’s Eve 1981 though, as I did when photographing the Deltics at the very end of their careers, I distinctly recall thinking, ‘well, it’s all over, but after all, they are old and worn out’. They seemed like old machines then. I was only 19 myself. They were older than me, so they seemed legitimate candidates for retirement.

    Diesels at Doncaster 2 This was the penultimate train that would be hauled by Deltic No. 55021 Argyll & Sutherland Highlander. Here it pauses at platform 1 with a mail service from Edinburgh in the early hours of 31 December 1981. After a turnround at King’s Cross, No. 55021 worked a service back to York on New Year’s Day 1982 and was then withdrawn. (Diesels at Doncaster, Amberley Publishing)

    The era in which they had carried two-tone green livery and numbers prefixed with a ‘D’ was a mere sixteen or so years previously, but to me it might as well have been ancient history…and as for the days when the pale blue prototype was in service, well, that was too far back to compute.

    If one had turned back the clock thirty-five years from 1982, one would arrive at 1947, just two years after the end of the Second World War. As Van Morrison might say, ‘in the days before rock and roll’… and in fact not only that, but ‘in the days before British Rail’. I guess that kind of puts the time span in perspective. The years that have now passed since the retirement of the Deltics – those three and a half decades – would safely contain the post-war steam era, the BR Modernisation Plan, the careers of a panoply of pilot scheme diesels, and the entire duration of the Woodhead electrification, the latter only twenty-seven years or so (at least counting from the opening of the ‘new’ tunnel in 1954). Thirty-five years is perhaps a long time after all. But those years since 1982 have flown by. Memories of the Deltics at Doncaster are still fresh.

    In my book ‘Diesels at Doncaster’ there is an image of Deltic No. 55021 ‘Argyll & Sutherland Highlander’ on a freezing platform 8 on the night of 31st December 1981. When I look at that picture, taken three and a half decades ago, I can still feel the chill, hear the hum of the Napier engines and smell the exhaust fumes. It seems like yesterday.

    9781445667942

    Andrew Walker and John Walker's book Diesels at Doncaster is available for purchase now.

  • The First Atlantic Liner: Brunel's Great Western Steamship by Helen Doe

    Researching Brunel’s first ship, the Great Western, has raised some intriguing images. Her launch was quite a spectacle. Built in Bristol and mostly fitted out in Bristol, it carried great hopes of a new era in transatlantic commerce. This extract from the book describes the launch and the generous quantities of Madeira with which she was baptised by Mrs Miles and by Lieutenant Claxton, the secretary of the Great Western Steamship Company.

    The First Atlantic Liner 1 Launch of the Great Western. (Denis Griffiths, The First Atlantic Liner: Brunel’s Great Western Steamship, Amberley Publishing)

    A ship launch was always a big celebration and attracted large crowds, some curious, some supportive and some just hoping for excitement and the possibility of a mishap and this was a hotly anticipated day. As usual the Bristol Mercury was there and devoted many column inches to the ship they nicknamed ‘The great leviathan of the deep’, a name later used at the launch of the Great Eastern.  By eight o’clock crowds had already congregated, every spot, every ship, every rooftop, that could command a view was occupied. On the water were the ships the Saint George and Clifton, both East Indiamen, the Stedfast and other West Indiamen, the Benladi and Torridge steamers.  The ship began launching at 10:00 and as she moved Mrs Miles, the wife of the local MP, ‘dashed a decanter of Madeira and named it the Great Western, at the same time Claxton broke a six-gallon bottle, also of Madeira, on the figurehead of Neptune repeating the name. The ship launched fully without incident and the crowds took in its magnificence as it floated on the waters looming over all other vessels. It was 236 feet long and 58 feet wide and its registered tonnage was 1,340 tons. Apart from her size, she looked much like any other wooden ship at this stage, as the funnel and paddlewheels would be fitted in London. It was well decorated and the figurehead against which Claxton had dashed so much Madeira, was a demi figure of Neptune, with a gilded trident, and on each side were imitation bronze dolphins and other mouldings were also gilded.

    The ship went on to cross the Atlantic for 18 years and cut the journey time from an unpredictable period of months at sea to a reliable two week passage. The book looks at the experience from the crew and the passenger perspective. While the ship was fitted out with every possible luxury for the time and was aimed at superior class passengers, lady travellers were challenged.

    The First Atlantic Liner 2 Saloon of the Great Western. (Brunel Institute, SS Great Britain Trust, The First Atlantic Liner: Brunel’s Great Western Steamship, Amberley Publishing)

    Cabins were small and passages narrow while the prevailing ladies fashion was forever wider and voluminous skirts supported by an extensive number of petticoats. In 1829 a Liverpool newspaper complained about the trend, but the accession of the young clothes loving Queen Victoria continued the fashion. An estimate is that the average dress in 1855 required some of thirty yards of material while the petticoats brought the total to 100 yards. Queen Victoria was very fond of voluminous skirts as they accentuated a narrow waist. For those who were also larger than average getting dressed was a trial. Mrs. Figg, who was clearly a stout party, complained about the difficulty of getting in and out of the berths, as she had to have the upper one in sharing with Mrs Brown. ‘I’m obligated to dress in bed, afore I leave it and nobody that hasn’t tried to put on their clothes lying down can tell what a task it is’ Lacing her stays behind her back and pulling on her stockings were all great trials and to do so ‘While you are rolling about from side to side is no laughing matter. Yesterday I fastened the pillow to my bustler by mistake.’

    Modern travellers can sympathise with Mrs Figg.

    9781445667201

    Helen Doe's book The First Atlantic Liner: Brunel’s Great Western Steamship is available for purchase now.

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