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  • Ali: The Fight America Didn't Want by Russell Routledge

    There have probably been more words penned about Muhammad Ali than any other sporting person in history – and the books still keep coming. Most of them are sitting on my bookshelves at home. Many authors of course recount stories of his former career as a boxer, some about his stand against the Vietnam War. Many remind us of his remarkable character and personality outside of the ring.

    A famous image of Muhammad Ali in his prime aged 25 – though not yet in his prime as a boxer, as history would prove – taken in 1967 by Ira Rosenberg. (Library of Congress, Ali: The Fight America Didn't Want, Amberley Publishing)

    The iconic boxer was and will always be a compelling subject. His fights with the boxing and political elite are legendary and his legacy I feel will be one of great inspiration and belief in oneself. Many of the boxing fans I talk to today weren’t even born during Ali’s career, but some still take more than a passing interest in the ex-champion’s life. I find it especially enjoyable when some fans from the younger generation tell me they would have ‘loved to have met Muhammad Ali – the greatest!’

    Nowadays, if that new generation of fans wants to watch the majority of his fights, they can be viewed on YouTube. His bouts – especially with Liston, Foreman and Frazier – have all been well documented. However, some of his lesser-knownbouts are confined to one or two paragraphs in books. This is insufficient to grasp the sometimes historic importance of certain fights, or to convey the turbulent times which surrounded them.

    The best example of this is when Ali first returned to boxing in 1970 and fought top contender Jerry Quarry. For some reason, in historical terms, this bout is recorded as a mere footnote. In reality, at that point in time, the bout was arguably the most highly anticipated big fight involving a returning champion since the ‘Great White Hope’ Jim Jeffries fought Jack Johnson way back in 1910.

    The reason Ali’s first return fight only receives a limited mention is perhaps because he was a (relatively) easy winner. Or maybe it was because his biggest challenges were just around the corner – his fight against undefeated Smokin’ Joe Frazier and the outcome of his battle with the Supreme Court, both happening in 1971. Later, there was so much happening in Ali’s supercharged life that his return bout after a three-and-a-half-year hiatus only served as an introduction to the title-fights that followed.

    I have searched through my extensive selection of books on Ali and at most, authors dedicate a chapter or two to Ali’s comeback fight. Yes, the first Quarry fight can be viewed, but the battle alone doesn’t reveal the highly controversial events surrounding it. Some accounts concentrate on the day before and the day after the bout, while some talk about the fight but only give a short account of the build-up and events afterwards. Movies detailing the life of the former champion fail to give this event the recognition it deserves. (One of the main characters in this story complained in a 2005 interview that one of the major Ali biopics only gave this bout a cursory mention.) There are snippets of information everywhere about the fight and events surrounding it, but no full retrospective account. So, here it is.

    I also hope to give one man the credit he deserves – the accounts I have researched seem to mention him only briefly.

    That’s the man standing opposite Ali in the ring on the night of 26 October 1970 – Jerry Quarry.

    Even leaving out the importance of the fight as the first for the ex-champion after his exiled years, the drama, characters and shenanigans outside of the ring make this an extraordinary story. This fight, which happened almost by accident, was hosted in the unlikeliest of places: Atlanta, Georgia, a city burnt to the ground in the American Civil War and the site of deadly race riots in the early part of the 20th century, but by 1970 the epicentre of the New South and one that had evolved as regards the balance of political power.

    Even before Jerry Quarry set foot in Atlanta, many newshounds and fans around the globe had him cast as a modern-day ‘Great White Hope’. There were also comparisons made between Ali and another once exiled champion, but one from the turn of the century: the first black heavyweight champion, Jack Johnson.

    Ali meets President Jimmy Carter, ex-Governor of Georgia, in 1977 at a White House dinner celebrating the signing of the Panama Canal Treaty. (Library of Congress, Ali: The Fight America Didn't Want, Amberley Publishing)

    In 1970, the Ali v Quarry fight was an international event and the press around the globe went to town. For Ali’s comeback, promoters brought all the way to Georgia a fighter regarded by many commentators as the hardest-hitting white fighter since Rocky Marciano. Jerry Quarry was the real deal, and just prior to his arrival in Atlanta the talented fighter from California was rated number one among the world’s elite heavyweight contenders by The Ring magazine. In addition to his number one status, he had been voted the world’s favourite active fighter by readers of Boxing Illustrated for the second year running (1968 and 1969).

    Jerry Quarry was riding high in the boxing world. He had previously made comments to the press about wanting to drop the ‘white hope’ tag, but in taking on the hugely controversial former black king of the ring, Muhammad Ali, the similarities with Jack Johnson and his fights with Great White Hopes Jess Willard and James J. Jeffries ensured that wasn’t going to happen.

    When Ali returned to boxing, he was still years away from the adulation he would eventually attract. Then the fighter evoked intense feelings of love and hate, which ran through the veins of people the world over, especially in America. This was mainly because of his allegiance to the Nation of Islam and his refusal to take part in or support the war that was still raging in Vietnam. His publicly espoused views, combined with his character and personality, made him the most controversial athlete on the planet.

    The fight was headlined with slogans such as ‘The fight nobody else wanted’, ‘The Return of the champ’ and ‘The Battle of Atlanta’ (the original battle of Atlanta having taken place from 22 July 1864 to 2 September 1864, with over 9000 casualties). A hundred years later, in October 1970, another bloody battle took place in Downtown Atlanta – just on the intersection of Courtland Street and Gilmer Street in an old arena called the Atlanta Municipal Auditorium.

    The fight attracted mainly African-Americans, who turned up to see the ring rebirth of ‘their’ champion. At the time, Ali’s night in Atlanta was called by some a ‘black awakening’. Many who turned up came from the entertainment world, and some were hugely rich and successful. Their wealth was openly on display as they preened in the international spotlight, draped in expensive furs and jewels. It was a way of saying that Ali, and everything he represented, represented them too – black, beautiful, bold and the best in the business. It was certainly a night of ‘soul-power’ and soul at its most colourful.

    However, this jamboree in Atlanta also attracted some of ‘the best’ from the underbelly of American society; it wasn’t only the rich and famous that turned up, but also crooks, racketeers and gangsters. Big-time boxing always had a reputation for attracting both the famous and infamous in society. They said Sonny Liston once had links to the mob, and even the most famous gangsterof them all, Al Capone, was regularly spotted ringside at the big fights, especially the ones involving his sporting hero, the ‘Manassa Mauler’ Jack Dempsey. At these events, film stars of the day settled into their expensive ringside seats alongside the gangsters.

    Foreman, Frazier, Ali; will there ever be such a rivalry in the heavyweight division again? (Authors collection, Ali: The Fight America Didn't Want, Amberley Publishing)

    The fight itself was the climax of a big sporting weekend in Atlanta, and for a few days the cash poured in. The bucketfuls of moolah in town presented a prize opportunity for some villains to win big themselves. All they needed was a plan, and when that plan came to fruition it ended up with some of those bejewelled spectators who sat in the $100 ringside seats being victims of armed robbery. After all the money and diamonds were bagged and carried off into the night, one detective who worked on the case called it possibly ‘the biggest armed robbery in Atlanta’s history up to that point’.

    The year 1970 meant ‘flower power’, black power and peace protests. It was also a time of great disillusionment and anger, and the start of great changes, not just in the social and political world but also in the world of heavyweight boxing. The former champ would return to more than a reshuffled division. It would be one with some new additions – a division some experts said was the strongest in a while. At the beginning of 1970, the heavyweight boxing ratings now included 1968 Olympic heavyweight champion George Foreman, and knockout artist and undefeated ex-marine Mac Foster. Another new face on the scene was Leotis Martin, who caused a huge upset by knocking out the ‘bear’, Sonny Liston, in a pre-Christmas brawl in 1969. Teak-tough brawler Oscar Bonavena was still riding high in the ratings, with former 1964 Olympic Heavyweight champ Smokin’ Joe Frazier recognized by the New York State Athletic Commission as world pro champ. Ali’s former sparring partner, Jimmy Ellis, was WBA Heavyweight Champion.

    The sandy-haired Californian slugger Jerry Quarry, who started his pro career back in 1965, also added glamour and power tothe division. Many thought Jerry was a sure bet to be a future champion, despite losing previous title shots to Jimmy Ellis (1968) and Joe Frazier (1969) during Ali’s enforced exile.

    In early 1970, the heavyweight division still included some of Ali’s old opponents, including Sonny Liston, Henry Cooper and George Chuvalo. Cooper was reaching the twilight of his career, with Liston just hanging in there with plans for a 1970 comeback, while George Chuvalo, who also had a controversial win over Quarry, was mooted to take on undefeated heavyweight sensation George Foreman later that year.

    Other new and young heavyweight hopefuls on the horizon were lining up and the one that showed the most promise in the UK was a then 19-year-old blonde Adonis called Joe Bugner (he would turn 20 on 13 March of that year).

    However, at the beginning of 1970, although Ali had been inactive for years, his name was still printed in the respected Ring magazine above all others as the heavyweight champion. The ‘bible of boxing’ would stand by the inactive boxer until the law courts gave a final verdict on his fate, or he permanently retired. So, for many, Ali was still champ, but a champion without an opponent as he was not allowed to fight.

    There was and still is, nothing crazier than boxing politics and at the beginning of 1970, Frazier, Ellis and Ali were recognized by various organizations as world heavyweight boxing champion. So let’s go back to those crazy times and follow the turbulent events, which led all the way to that wild, celebratory and for some, dangerous night of Ali’s return to boxing in Atlanta, Georgia.

    Russell Routledge's book Ali: The Fight America Didn't Want is available for purchase now.

  • Killing Napoleon by Jonathan North

    The Plot to Blow up Bonaparte

    Are horseshoes lucky?

    An image of Napoleon, mounted, dating from the time of the Infernal Machine. He wears the uniform of a consul of France and, oddly, does so whilst directing troops in the field. (Killing Napoleon, Amberley Publishing)

    Not for the royalist plotters who tried to kill Napoleon on Christmas Eve 1800. Three of them, François-Joseph Carbon, Joseph Picot de Limoëlan and Pierre Robinault de Saint-Réjant, had loaded a barrel bomb onto the back of a cart and, hitching it to an old Parisian nag, had brought it into the centre of Paris. Their aim was to detonate the bomb as Napoleon’s coach passed by on the way to the opera. The bomb, dubbed the Infernal Machine, went off in Rue Nicasie, missing Napoleon by seconds but killing a dozen passers-by and wounding scores more. Paris was appalled by this first example of a terrorist atrocity. The press went wild with speculation as to who could be responsible whilst the police began the hunt for the actual perpetrators.

    Forensic science was in its infancy but the police had been astute enough to collect as much of the remains of the horse and cart as they could and transported them to the prefecture for examination. The chief vet of Paris, Jean-Baptiste Huzard, was able to put together a description of the animal and this was circulated amongst the yards and stables that fringed the northern suburbs of the capital. This piqued the curiosity of the blacksmith Jean-Baptiste Legros and he came in to take a look at the horse’s amputated hoof, paying close attention to the horseshoe that was still attached to it. He recognised his handiwork, having tended the horse for five years, and, even more importantly, called on his friend Jean Lambel, a grain merchant, who had recently sold that horse and a cart, and some lentils, to a mysterious stranger. Lambel confirmed the facts and gave a detailed description of a travelling cloth salesman who seemed to know little about cloth or selling and less about horses and carts. A man who, moreover, bore a suspicious scar. Before long the police had located the yard where the bomb had been prepared and the nosey neighbours told them that their suspicion had been triggered by three men locking an empty cart in a shed and the way these well-spoken men had dried out barrels in the forecourt. Following a tip-off that the salesman with the scar was a man called Carbon living in the Rue du Faubourg they mounted a raid on an apartment which instead woke the catty Marguerite Davignon who told the bemused officers that Carbon had moved in with his “sister and lover” at 310 Rue Martin. A second raid on the correct address revealed that Carbon had quit Catherine Vallon’s flat but that he had left behind a blue smock, some gunpowder and a sack of Lambel’s lentils. Before long the fugitive had been tracked down to a convent and was apprehended when the police broke into the nuns’ quarters. The horseshoe had proved unlucky for Carbon. He would now face the guillotine.

    An artist’s impression of the explosion. This is a reasonable attempt at accuracy, although the coach and escort was a little further away than suggested here. (Killing Napoleon, Amberley Publishing)

    His story, and that of the other plotters, and the men tasked with hunting them down, is told in my new book Killing Napoleon. It charts a critical moment in French history just after Napoleon had seized power in the autumn of 1799 and when various factions were manoeuvring to bring him down, or put an end to him altogether. The book focuses on the most dramatic attempt of all, the detonation of a bomb on 24 December 1800 as Napoleon was on his way to see The Creation. It examines the forces which conspired to kill, those men tasked with the deed and the lives of those who were caught up in the atrocity. But it also follows the work of the detectives as they piece together clues, bits of flesh and contradictory information in their attempt to bring those who wanted to kill Napoleon to justice.

    Jonathan North's new book Killing Napoleon is available for purchase now.

  • Henry VII: The Maligned Tudor King by Terry Breverton

    Henry VII by C. E. Kempe (1909) at the church of St Mary the Virgin, inside the town walls near Pembroke Castle. (Henry VII, Amberley Publishing)

    With the exhumed Richard III being given a cathedral service and burial, he seems to have assumed heroic status in the eyes of many, a modern myth, or should I now say ‘fake news’ for those with a knowledge of history. However, the newly aroused interest in one of our most devious and cruel monarchs threw the spotlight upon the man who usurped his throne. In fact, only three major lords supported Richard at his demise, two of them created by him. Over thirty other great barons, who had always followed Richard’s brother Edward IV into battle, stayed away from Bosworth or supported Henry. Edward IV’s bodyguard and closest allies came to Henry’s assistance, along with Edward IV’s widow as her brother-in-law Richard had killed her sons. The people who disagree with this sentence are members of the Richard III Society or readers of modern historical fiction.

    As for usurpation, a glance through all English kings from Athelstan onwards will show a history or violence, revolt of fathers against sons, and no obvious royal bloodline or rightful kings. After a series of Germanic then French kings marrying Germanic then French wives, Henry Tudor was the first king with any British blood in him, via his grandfather Owen Tudor. Owen was descended in direct line from Ednyfed Fychan (1170-1246), Seneschal to Llywelyn the Great, via the Tudors of Anglesey who initiated the Owain Glyndwr war of 1400-1415. Much of his success in succeeding against seemingly overwhelming odds was owing to his march through Wales to meet Richard. The whole nation rose in support, believing that Henry was the mab darogan – the son of prophecy – who had come to take England back from the German and French invaders. Indeed, there had been almost continuous rebellion by the British (i.e. Welsh) and in particular the Tudor family, against the English from the time of the defeat of Llywelyn II in 1282. The fight ended with the coronation of the first king of England with British blood.

    Terry Breverton's new paperback edition of Henry VII: The Maligned Tudor King is available for purchase now.

  • A-Z of Stratford-upon-Avon by Will Adams

    I was delighted to have the chance to contribute a Stratford-upon-Avon volume to Amberley’s ‘A-Z’ series, as the town and I go back a long way.

    ‘Swans of Avon’: the river and its swans and other waterfowl are central to Stratford and the iconography of Shakespeare. (A-Z of Stratford-upon-Avon, Amberley Publishing)

    I’m a ‘Coventry kid’, having lived in that city for the first 19 years of my life, so Stratford was only just down the road. My sister and I were lucky in that our parents were theatre-lovers, and we made frequent visits to the Memorial Theatre during the 1960s. In those days the theatre had a small apron stage, and on either side of the stage projection were a couple of very short rows of diagonally positioned seats, right under the edge of the apron. Because of their unconventional position, I guess they were relatively inexpensive; whatever, my parents, who didn’t have a lot of money to throw around, booked us into these seats, which meant that we were often really in the thick of the action! You had to crane your head up to see, and only got a sort of sideways view, but in battle scenes we were likely to have a cannon or a corpse rolled in front of us, and we were also in the direct line of fire of any of the ‘spitty’ actors of the day.

    Talking of the actors, my mother, then in her late thirties, was quite stage-struck, so she and I often found ourselves part of the gaggle of autograph hunters at the stage door after the performance. One actor we saw frequently, though nameless now, was a regular extra – third spear-carrier from the right and so on – and always went home on a bicycle; he became known to us as ‘the bloke on the bike’. At the other end of the acting scale, I see from my autograph book, which I still have, that in the mid-1960s I obtained signatures from such greats a Judi Dench, Marius Goring, Tony Britton, Diana Rigg, Ian Holm, Eric Porter and David Warner, all appearing with the RSC.

    Attending other events in the town – poetry readings and the like – I see that I also have the autographs of John Betjeman and Donald Pleasence.

    The Birthplace today, heavily restored in 1858 to what it looked like in a drawing of 1769. The 1960s Shakespeare Centre can be seen beyond. (A-Z of Stratford-upon-Avon, Amberley Publishing)

    We travelled to Stratford from Coventry in Dad’s Ford ‘Pop’, and generally managed to get a street parking place in Chapel Street, not far from the theatre – very unlikely these days, I would imagine. The car had no heater, so on the journey home my sister and I in the back had our knees covered by a tartan blanket, and were frequently called upon by Dad to ‘wipe the back window’ with a duster to remove the condensation – no heated rear screen either! The journey was traditionally broken by the purchase of four bags of chips from a fish and chip shop in Warwick – a welcome treat on a cold night!

    Another memory of Stratford in those days was the 400th anniversary of Shakespeare’s birth in 1964, when a large exhibition was mounted on the meadows beside the river. As a souvenir I bought a small china tray bearing the famous portrait of the playwright together with his signature. It’s still on display at home today, some 55 years later – thanks to the application of some glue…

     

     

    The chancel and spire of Holy Trinity Church viewed from the east bank of the Avon. (A-Z of Stratford-upon-Avon, Amberley Publishing)

    In later years, having moved away from Coventry, my wife and I would often have a day out with Mum and Dad in Stratford, enjoying its variety of shops – and tearooms. Sadly, as my parents became less mobile, so these occasional excursions inevitably became less frequent, so it was a great pleasure to have the excuse to re-acquaint myself with the town by researching the book – especially the non-Shakespeare-related aspects. For example, I didn’t know that John Profumo was the town’s MP at the time of the notorious 1963 scandal. The contributions to ‘Bardolotry’ by eccentric romantic novelist Marie Corelli, eminent actor David Garrick and the Flower brewing family produced fascinating insights. I also didn’t know that Stratford had a listed telephone kiosk, and was home to the Royal Label Factory, which produced many of the cast road signs and signposts that were so familiar in the 1960s.

    My wife and I spent a very enjoyable long weekend in June 2018, at the height of that summer’s heat wave, taking photographs for the book and exploring some of the town’s less familiar corners. While the whole placed is steeped in Shakespeare, it is worth bearing in mind that he spent much of his working career in London, and essentially very little is known about him, his life and death, and his family – which is perhaps what makes him so endlessly fascinating to theatre-goers and scholars alike. What is certain (unless you subscribe to the ‘they-were-all-written-by-someone-else’ conspiracy theory school!) is that when he died in 1616 he had written some 37 plays and 150 sonnets – and he was only 52 years old. Quite an output!

    Will Adams' new book A-Z of Stratford-upon-Avon is available for purchase now.

  • The Merlin: The Engine That Won the Second World War by Gordon A. A. Wilson

    The name sure conjures up a strong mysterious presence from a bygone age and that is what the Rolls-Royce Merlin is; not an ancient wizard from mediaeval times but a high-performance aircraft engine from another century. Over eighty years ago Frederick Henry Royce sat at his desk and further developed in concept some previous successful engines into the very successful Vee shaped twelve-cylinder liquid cooled aircraft engine.

    C.S. Rolls. (c. Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust, The Merlin, Amberley Publishing)

    The Royal Air Force fighters and bombers would never be the same after the introduction of the Rolls-Royce engine into their airframe. Names such as the Hawker Hurricane, Supermarine Spitfire and de Havilland Mosquito fighters and the Avro Lancaster bomber became synonymous with Britain’s victory in World War Two. The aircraft manufacturers provided the body, but it was Rolls-Royce that provided the heart to ensure that each aircraft, depending on its role, performed to the maximum at both very high or very low altitudes, and everything in between.

    The finest example of this was when the Merlin engine replaced the Allison engine in the North American Mustang. It turned the technically superior airframe into arguably the best all round fighter/fighter escort of the war. The addition of jettisonable, ‘drop’, fuel tanks allowed the Mustang to escort the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress all the way to Berlin and back and be a very effective fighter escort.

     

    F.H. (Henry) Royce. (c. Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust, The Merlin, Amberley Publishing)

    The name Rolls-Royce itself brings an understanding of precision, performance and unmistakeable beauty. Henry Royce started his innovative engineering by trying to build a better mousetrap, notably to improve his own twin cylinder Decauville. This he succeeded in doing and then followed up by developing his own car, a 10 Horsepower twin cylinder model. Joined by Charles Rolls in 1906 the partnership flourished. The backroom boffin and the aristocratic salesman adventurer, how could it fail? It did not, and the foundation was set for a company which today is known throughout the world.

    The Rolls-Royce cars continued to improve for the next eight years and then the First World War intervened, production stopped except for some chassis conversions to armoured cars. Lawrence of Arabia comes immediately to mind driving his Rolls-Royce in the desert. The government immediately approached Rolls-Royce about building the Renault V8 and RAF 1a engines. As before, Royce, after examining these engines, immediately set out to design his own. He did, and it was called the Eagle. Royce had taken his experience with a V12 liquid cooled engine into the air. Twelve years from the road to the air. Aero engine development would accelerate rapidly for the next 100 years and Rolls-Royce was leading and competing with the ‘big boys’ of the aviation world.

    The Eagle was followed by the Falcon, Hawk and Condor. All names conjuring up powerful birds freely soaring at will in the sky that they owned. Immediately after the war two Eagle engines proved themselves by powering a Vickers Vimy, under the command of John Alcock and Arthur Brown, non-stop across the Atlantic. The Kestrel and Buzzard engines maintained the company’s momentum until the entry of Rolls-Royce to win and capture for perpetuity the Schneider Trophy.

    Rolls-Royce Eagle, the first aero engine. (c. Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust, The Merlin, Amberley Publishing)

    The Buzzard was taken and developed to produce horsepower with little or no restraint for longevity, to last just long enough to complete the course at maximum horsepower. This was the ultimate learning foundation for the Merlin which would follow soon after. Streamlining, weight, special fuel and maximum supercharger performance was the total, only, demand of the R engine. Rolls-Royce succeeded by winning the 1931 contest, third time in a row. The Trophy now resides in the Science Museum, London.

    The Goshawk appeared off the drawing boards using an evaporative or steam cooling system. The condensers changing the steam to liquid were bulky, inefficient and susceptible to damage. Its only claim to fame, before it was cancelled, was its installation in the Supermarine Type 224, which became the Spitfire. Something else was needed and that something was the Merlin.

    1933 was in the middle of the transition of the biplane to the monoplane. Reduce the lift in half by removing a wing and it required the remaining wing to travel faster to achieve the same lift. Faster speed required more power and efficiency from the engine and the propeller. During this important transition and demand on engine design and performance the engineering heart of Rolls-Royce died in April 1933, Frederick Henry Royce passed away.

    Supermarine Spitfire Mark IX. (c. Geoffrey Pickard, The Merlin, Amberley Publishing)

    The momentum of his engineering foresight and guidance resulted in the personnel of Rolls-Royce to produce and run the Merlin for the first time in 1933. Twenty years from the Eagle to the Merlin. Changes to cylinder heads and block castings followed looking for the perfect balance of performance and ease of construction. This was an all risk situation for the company. If the Air Ministry was not interested in the Private Venture 12 engine, all the Rolls-Royce resources would have been for nothing and it would have been a very costly venture.

    The Air Ministry loved the engine and to keep up with the demand had the engine built under licence in the USA. The biggest improvement for the engine came from the speeds and stages of the supercharger attributed to Stanley Hooker. The Merlin continued to develop from 740 to over 2,000hp in the Merlin 133/134.

    In 2019 the eighty-six-year-old engine still can be heard in the skies of the world. Flying Avro Lancasters in Britain and Canada thrill the aviation enthusiasts with the sound of four Merlins at air shows. Ground running Lancasters in Lincolnshire, England and Alberta, Canada thrill the crowds. Add to this the sights, who can not admire the elliptical wing of the Supermarine Spitfire, of the Hawker Hurricane, the de Havilland Mosquito and the North American Mustang.

    It is not the sight of the aircraft alone that thrills the audience but the unmistakeable sound of the twelve cylinders of the Merlin. Can you imagine the sound of the Merlins at the Reno air races in the USA? I look forward to the 100th anniversary, it is only 16 years away. I cannot wait!

    Gordon A. A. Wilson's new book The Merlin: The Engine That Won the Second World War is available for purchase now.

  • Staffordshire Coal Mines by Helen Harwood

    It is no coincidence that the industrial towns in Staffordshire lie on or close to the counties coal fields, notwithstanding the 1974 Local authority reorganisation which saw large areas of South Staffordshire become part of the West Midlands authority.

    Foxfield Colliery. (Staffordshire Coal Mines, Amberley Publishing)

    Prior to the eighteenth century the majority of people worked in agriculture while the making of pottery – coal excavated from surface seams fired the kilns – and iron smelting was carried out on a local hand produced basis. For example, in the sixteenth-century coal from the South Staffs coalfield was used to fire small scale iron forges. However, the large quantities of sulphur produced by coal led to the pig iron being brittle. Lord Paget of Beaudesert built probably the first blast furnace in the Midlands circa 1560 on his Cannock Chase estate fuelled by charcoal, resulting on pressure on the surrounding woodland to meet demand.

    It was Abraham Darby in nearby Shropshire who, in the early eighteenth century created the process of using coke from coal to manufacture iron. The demand for coal grew rapidly as coke reduced the cost of pig and wrought iron so allowing larger blast furnaces to be built.

    Following on from drift mines dug into hillsides vertical “bell pits” reaching some thirty- to- forty -feet down gave access to deeper coal reserves. A narrow shaft about 4ft-6in in diameter led into the seam where miners dug the coal from both sides creating a bell-shape. Meanwhile, sometime earlier in 1698 Thomas Savery developed the first successful steam powered one-horsepower engine. It was used in some mines and branded “The Miner’s Friend”. One was installed in Broad Water colliery, Wednesbury in 1706, but it proved unsuccessful and the mine flooded. However, the majority of pits still relied on waterwheels, windmills and horsepower to keep them relatively dry. Later, in 1712 Newcomes steam engine pumped out water from mine shafts allowing them to be dug deeper. Following on, in the 1770’s James Watt’s engine cut fuel costs enabling mines to become larger and more profitable.

    The Conduit Colliery at Norton Cains. (Staffordshire Coal Mines, Amberley Publishing)

    As the demand for coal grew so did the need to transport it efficiently and the eighteenth century saw the development of Staffordshire’s canal system. The Trent and Mersey – opened 1777 –financed largely by Josiah Wedgwood to move raw materials and finished ware safely followed the valley traversing the North Staffs coalfield. Standing in the way though, was Harecastle Hill near Kidsgrove, however the excavations of Harecastle Tunnel led to the discovery of more coal seams. The introduction of canal transport with the ability to move large quantities of coal lowered the price and demand grew rapidly. In 1836 the Trent and Mersey canal carried 184,500 tons of goods away from the Potteries. Many mine owners like Viscount Dudley Ward financed the building of canals to link with industry, while cutting branch canals to join collieries directly with the network. The Cauldon Canal linked the Cheadle coalfield while the Staffordshire and Worcester and the Dudley canal had links to the local collieries.

    In order to transport the coal from the pithead tramways were laid to the canal wharf with the wagons pulled by horses. Then in 1806 two horse-railways or tramroads were proposed to link the collieries and ironworks around Newcastle-Under-Lyme joining together about a mile south-west of Audley before meeting the Chester canal at Nantwich. The plans never materialised, however in the 1860’s a steam railway built as a branch of the Newcastle to Audley line served the collieries in Apedale. Meanwhile, in 1849 the main Walsall to Lichfield line of the South Staffordshire Railway opened running close to Hammerwich and Uxbridge collieries with a company line linking the Cannock Chase Colliery’s pits to the main line making it more economical to transport coal by rail.

    By the end of the nineteenth century coal mining was growing rapidly to feed the Industrial Revolution. The use of coal doubled between 1800 and 1900 and to be against coal was to be against progress and employment.

    Helen Harwood's new book Staffordshire Coal Mines is available for purchase now.

  • A Gross of Pirates by Terry Breverton

    From Alfhild the Shield Maiden to Afweyne the Big Mouth

    Admiral Sir Henry Morgan. (A Gross of Pirates, Amberley Publishing)

    Why write twelve books about pirates and privateers? It simply stems from writing about famous Welshmen. I knew about the privateer Admiral Sir Henry Morgan, but by chance discovered Black Bart Roberts, hardly known in Britain, but by far the most successful ‘pirate of the Caribbean’, taking more than 400 ships, and known across the Americas. From the career of the teetotal Roberts, who dressed from head to foot in scarlet (the origin of le joli rouge, the Jolly Roger), I learned of the greatest pirate trial of all time…

    Men flocked to join him from surrendered ships – I did not know that forcible impressment and cruelty was endemic upon merchant ships as well as the Royal Navy – to escape their miserable lives. The average lifespan of a sailor in the slave trade was 18 months. Life as a pirate, in an elected democracy with agreed rules aboard ship, better food and freedom, was far more attractive. In Black Bart’s words, ‘a short life and a merry one shall be my motto.’ Pringle calls Roberts ‘possibly the most daring pirate who ever lived’, and upon the death of ‘the Black Pyrate’, there was the greatest pirate trial of all time, with 273 men captured, including 72 black pirates who had the same conditions, share of booty and freedom as their white counterparts.

    Bart’s is a magnificent story, well documented like those of Morgan, who successfully led six expeditions against ‘impregnable’ targets belonging to Spain and altered the course of the history of North America. Every maritime country has its story of privateers like Morgan, who were, of course, pirates to England’s major enemy.

    Blackbeard. (Courtesy of Library of Congress, A Gross of Pirates, Amberley Publishing)

    A review of the book reads: ‘It's no use pretending that these criminals do not evoke admiration - even envy. Part of the appeal is the democratic nature of their activities, characterised as far back as the fourteenth century by Klaus Stortebeker thieving in the Baltic - his crew were called the “Likedeelers”, the equal sharers. Author Terry Breverton has brought together the extraordinary stories of 144 pirates throughout history. They include Norman privateers, Barbary Corsairs, Elizabethan adventurers, Chinese pirates, “'the Brethren of the coast” - and of course the pirates of the Caribbean.’

    It was enjoyable writing the book, to research other pirates over the centuries. Some were brave gentlemen who led by example, like Henry Morgan; others experienced sailors who were voted into office like Roberts; some too kindly for their crews, like Edward England; and many simply unhinged and cruel, like l’Ollonais and Montbars the Destroyer. One of the early pirates, Eustace the Monk, may have been the model for Robin Hood, and the privateer Didrik Pining may have been the first to discover America. Some were female, such as Alfhild, ‘the bloody Lioness’ Jeanne de Clisson, Sayyida and Madame Ching. The latter, incidentally, had her pirate husband murdered and married his lover, their adopted bisexual son.

    Some readers may know that the character and tale of the renegade Colonel Kurtz in Apocalypse Now was inspired by the film Aguire – Wrath of God. Both stories were inspired by Lope de Aguirre (8 November 1510 – 27 October 1561), also known as the ‘Limping Conquistador’, ‘Keeper of the Dead’, ‘El Loco’ (The Madman), who styled himself ‘Wrath of God, Prince of Freedom, Prince of Peru, and King of Tierra Firme’. And of course, he’s in the book!

    Terry Breverton's new book A Gross of Pirates is available for purchase now.

  • Steam in the British Coalfields by Mick Pope

    Trainspotter, a description that has somehow become a term of ridicule, conjuring up an image of some bespectacled nerd who is unable to function in normal society and definitely won’t have any dress sense, wife or girlfriend. Funny how this has come about as an interest in railways in general as the second most popular hobby among men in the United Kingdom after angling. I did wear glasses as a young lad and so I was part way there already!

    Joseph climbs away from the screens at Bold Colliery with loaded 21-ton hopper wagons, probably destined for Fiddlers Ferry Power Station. August 1981. (Steam in the British Coalfields, Amberley Publishing)

    I must admit that my father was the first to encourage me to take an interest in the model variety of trains, having himself grown up as a collector of the old fashioned clockwork, tinplate Hornby ‘O’ gauge ones. I suspect his encouragement was merely to give legitimacy to him continuing his own passion as I had only a passing interest at that time. Then one day I was rebuffed by a school friend when I asked him what we would do over the coming weekend. After a hushed conversation with another friend he declared that he was going to Chester station to collect train numbers. It seemed a bit pointless to me but I tagged along anyway out of curiosity. I was advised to buy a ‘locoshed book’ published by the Ian Allen company as this contained the number of every locomotive working for British Railways, as it was then, plus the place where they normally were based. I was told that I also needed a notebook and that I should write down the number of every locomotive seen and then underline that number in the locoshed book when I got home. It all seemed a bit boring although it had an element of acquisitiveness that is present in most kids. One day and I was hooked! There was just something about the big powerful machines that seemed alive. I didn’t know what I was looking at in any detail but noted that some locomotives had names, that some were green, most were black and some very special ones were a kind of red and these got a special cheer from the assembled spotters. I needed more information and so bought more detailed pocket sized books with photographs and technical details. I learned fast.

    Warrior with a rake of 16-ton mineral wagons. The snow manages to cover what was normally a very muddy environment! (Steam in the British Coalfields, Amberley Publishing)

    With my friends we travelled further afield. Holidays on the south coast, and with relatives in Somerset, introduced me to new kinds of locomotives. We revived a moribund railway society at our grammar school, really just an excuse to obtain permits from British Railways to visit their locomotive depots, although we frequently ‘bunked’ these places, i.e. sneaked in without permission. Being well over six feet tall at age sixteen I could pass as an adult and, telling that little white lie, was allowed to obtain the required permits.

    Eventually, as with many childhood fads or hobbies, many of my friends gradually dropped out. By this stage I had also developed an interest in photography and, again encouraged by my father, owned a reasonably effective camera rather than the Kodak ‘Instamatic’ used by most of my fellow enthusiasts. By this time British Railways was rapidly disposing of its steam locomotives and collecting their numbers had become a bit pointless, you could never see them all which had been the original aim, and so taking photographs of what was disappearing seemed a sensible thing to do.

    Around this time I got a place at Nottingham University and, as bad luck would have it, this was an area where steam power had already been eliminated. Studies in Nottingham and a girlfriend back home took up most of my time and money. One day in 1968, the year steam locomotives were eliminated on British Railways, I was sat in the Social Science library at the university pondering a life without steam locomotives when I spotted a column of steam moving about in the distance. This puzzled me as it was unlikely that anything had strayed from the last stronghold in the North West. Studying an Ordnance Survey map that evening I guessed that the steam was coming from Clifton Colliery. I checked this out and sure enough they had a small steam locomotive. I knew from my GCE ‘O’ level Geography that there were lots of coal mines around Nottingham and therefore there might be other places with steam power. Further research discovered that there was actually a national society for those interested in industrial locomotives and that they published books recording every location and what could be found there. My studies took a downward turn and I was out and about, ironically photographing not the coalmining locations, few had steam power working by then, but the ironstone quarries in Lincolnshire, Rutland as was, and Northamptonshire.

    Descending from the colliery, a loaded train passes the mangled remains of a recent load that ran away on the steep gradient and derailed. (Steam in the British Coalfields, Amberley Publishing)

    Returning home to Liverpool once I graduated – with a very moderate degree – I found that the coal mines of Lancashire were still home to many steam locomotives as were those a little further afield in Cumbria. By the early 1970s my younger brother had also become something of an industrial steam nerd by this time, being handy for the last strongholds in North Wales, and so we went on expeditions together.

    Sadly even this means of satisfying our appetite was diminishing and in 1975 I made my first trip abroad to photograph steam locomotives in East Germany, Poland and, with my wife to be in tow, Spain and Portugal. By the end of the 1980s I had added, with several visits, India, China, South Africa, Turkey and Zimbabwe to the list, photographing both steam trains on the national lines of those countries but also industrial sites. When asked if I had seen the ‘Terracotta Army’ on a trip to China I had to answer ‘No but I did go to the steelworks at Anshan and the forestry line at Langxiang’ [where we taught the local workers how to play musical chairs at a social evening]!

    I had many adventures on these trips, some printable, some not! I also have a cupboard full of negatives and colour slides that I need to transfer into digital format before they fade away. So call me a nerd if you must but I have seen far more of the world than most and don’t regret it one bit. See my photos and judge for yourself!

    Mick Pope's new book Steam in the British Coalfields is available for purchase now.

  • A-Z of The Black Country by Andrew Homer

    The Workers’ Institute from Cradley Heath, locally known as the ‘Stute’, and now preserved at the Black Country Living Museum is remarkable not just for its Arts and Crafts style architecture but also for the people and stories associated with the building. Two such people are Mary Reid Macarthur and Thomas Sitch.

    The Cradley Heath lockout

    The Cradley Heath Workers' Institute. (Author's collection, A-Z of The Black Country, Amberley Publishing)

    The Workers’ Institute is closely associated with the history of women’s trade unionism and in particular Mary Reid Macarthur. Mary was the daughter of a Glasgow draper and after leaving school worked for her father as a bookkeeper in the family business. She had ambitions to be a journalist and would attend local meetings and write them up for the local paper. One of these meetings was the Ayr branch of the Shop Assistants’ Union. Once Mary had become exposed to the ideas of trade unionism, she knew exactly what she wanted to do with her life. After becoming secretary of the Ayr branch of the Shop Assistants’ Union Mary was invited by Margaret Bondfield (who would later become the first woman Cabinet minister) and Gertrude Tuckwell, President of the Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL), to become the Secretary of the WTUL. In 1906 Mary founded the National Federation of Women Workers (NFWW) which was a general national union for women.

    Emblem of the National Federation of Women Workers. (Author's collection, A-Z of The Black Country, Amberley Publishing)

    The emblem of the National Federation of Women Workers, which appeared on both enamel badges and marching banners, symbolised very effectively the aims of the NFWW.

    The clasped hands are a common trade union motif and here the hand on the right clearly belongs to a woman with a lace sleeve representing the aim of unity between female and male trade unionists. This aim was eventually achieved in 1921 when the NFWW merged with the National Union of General Workers. The bundle of sticks running down the centre of the emblem has its origins in the Roman ‘fasces’, a symbol of power. However, Mary Macarthur often used the analogy of the bundle of sticks to represent the strength of the union. Writing in ‘The Woman Worker’ in 1907 she stated that:

    A trade union is like a bundle of sticks. The workers are bound together and have the strength of unity. No employer can do as he likes with them. They have the power of resistance. They can ask for an advance without fear. A worker who is not in a union is like a single stick. She can easily be broken or bent to the will of her employer. She has not the power to resist a reduction in wages. If she is fined she must pay without complaint. She dare not ask for a ‘rise’. If she does, she will be told, ‘Your place is outside the gate: there are plenty to take your place.’ An employer can do without one worker. He cannot do without all his workers.

    The bundle of sticks symbol can be seen displayed on the front of the Workers’ Institute building itself. The motto ‘To fight, to struggle, to right the wrong is taken from Tennyson’s poem ‘Wages’ and represents not just the fight for fair wages but also the poet’s stance on equality for men and women. The ‘wrong’ may also be a reference to sweated labour which frequently involved women such as the ladies engaged in domestic chain making in and around the Cradley Heath area of the Black Country.

    The ‘bundle of sticks’ motif displayed on The Workers' Institute building. (Author's collection, A-Z of The Black Country, Amberley Publishing)

    In the same year Mary Macarthur was instrumental in helping to set up the National Anti-Sweating League along with George Cadbury, J. J. Mallon and others. This organisation put pressure on the Liberal government to do something about the so-called sweated industries. These industries were typified by very low pay, poor working conditions and long hours. Four trade boards were set up to cover chain making, box making, clothing and lace making, the first of which was the Chain Board. President of the Board of Trade at the time of creation was Winston Churchill who had introduced the Trades Boards Act in 1909. In 1910 this was successful in bringing in a minimum wage of 212d an hour for chainmakers who were mainly working from home in small chain shops and were being paid on piecework rates of approximately a 114d an hour. Chainmakers working in the factories were already above this minimum wage but not so the many women chainmakers working up to 55 hours a week from home earning between 4 and 5 shillings.

    The women chainmakers worked at forges either in small chain shops behind the squalid homes in which they lived or else would share a shed with other women from ‘across the blue paved yard’ or ‘fode’. Their homes were often overcrowded, damp and lacking even basic amenities. The rent on these homes would be approximately 4 shillings a week. As well as making chain for up to fifty-five hours per week, producing approximately 5000 links, the women would be looking after babies and younger children who would generally play amongst the sparks and constant noise of hammering in the chain shops. They would be making small link chain, sometimes called ‘hand hammered’ or ‘country work’ chain which was often used in agriculture, mining and by the army. They were at the mercy of an intermediary called the ‘fogger’ who delivered the lengths of iron and then paid for the completed chain. The women had little choice but to accept what little the fogger offered in payment for their hard work.

    Women chainmakers in a Cradley Heath domestic workshop. (Author's collection, A-Z of The Black Country, Amberley Publishing)

    A handful of Black Country chain making companies paid the minimum wage immediately, but most made use of a clause that delayed payment until 17 August 1910. An unfortunate loophole in the law allowed companies to further delay payment for six months if the workers themselves opted out of the minimum wage. This loophole was exploited by the Chain Manufacturers’ Association (CMA), some 30 companies and 150 non-CMA middlemen. The employers came up with a complex worded document which the women were coerced into signing. Many could not read or write and simply did not comprehend what they were doing. Others who refused were threatened with no more work. In the meantime, companies stockpiled chain against the time they could no longer avoid paying the minimum wage. One of the intentions of this was to directly challenge the Trades Boards Act and the authority of the Chain Board to impose a minimum wage.

    The new rate was due to be paid from August 17 but in the event few employers complied with the Chain Board minimum wage. The situation escalated quickly. A meeting of 400 women at Grainger’s Lane School on 21 August effectively marked the start of what was to be a nearly ten-week lockout when they all agreed not to sign the opting out document. Things came to head on the 23 August 1910 when the NFWW insisted through a new agreement that the minimum wage should be paid straight away. This resulted in the chain making companies withdrawing raw materials and effectively putting the women out of work. Strike was now inevitable. The strike was called a lockout but it should be noted that as the women were working from home they were not actually locked out of anywhere. The women chainmakers were not just fighting for the minimum wage either as Mary Macarthur was well aware. The authority of the Trade Boards to address the plight of workers in the sweated industries was also now to be tested on a national stage.

    Mary Macarthur addressing the crowd at Cradley Heath in 1910. (Author's collection, A-Z of The Black Country, Amberley Publishing)

    It was an incredibly brave thing for these women to down tools and go on strike. Although they didn’t earn very much the money was still essential to help put food on the table for their families. Secondly, having put down their hammers there was every chance they would never work again. The one thing that made it possible for so many to down tools, around 800 at the height of the strike, was the provision of a strike fund, the success of which was mainly down to the phenomenal publicity campaign orchestrated by Mary Macarthur. Whilst Mary concentrated mainly on national campaigning equally enthusiastic local organisation was provided by Julia Varley of the NFWW, Thomas Sitch who was General Secretary of the Chainmakers’ and Strikers’ Association and his son Charles Sitch who was the secretary of the hand-hammered chain branch of the NFWW.

    The publicity campaign mounted by Mary Macarthur was truly remarkable. She made use of all the available media at the time to publicise the plight of the women chainmakers. She had a group of the oldest lady chainmakers photographed with some of them wearing chains around their necks. The oldest was Patience Round who was 79 in 1910 and still a full time chainmaker who incredibly lived to be 103. Patience liked to talk about her life and her story appeared in the newspapers of the day. Pictures such as these appeared in the press including The Times together with headlines such as ‘Fetters of Fate’ and ‘Women Slaves of the Forge’. This was a clever move to deliberately make a connection between these women and slavery. However, this was not the first time such a connection had been made. Writing in 1897, Robert Sherard described the appalling conditions the sweated chainmakers of Cradley Heath endured in his book, The White Slaves of England.

    It was in 1910 that French filmmaker Charles Pathé came to England to introduce his Pathé Newsreel service to British cinema audiences. Mary convinced him to come and film a march in Cradley Heath. Not only that, the film included the conditions the women were working and living in. Although silent the manager of Pathé estimated that it could have been seen by up to 10 million people throughout the country. Mary undertook a national lecture tour to expose the chain making companies not paying the minimum wage as supporters of sweated labour. Locally there were regular rallies, marches and meetings to keep the impetus of the strike going.

    Mary Reid Macarthur. (Author's collection, A-Z of The Black Country, Amberley Publishing)

    The result of all these publicity efforts was that money poured in to the strike fund. There were collections on street corners and in factories. Poorer people contributed pennies and halfpennies and even the aristocracy and leading business families got involved. Amongst many others, the Countess of Warwick sent £25 with the promise of more if needed and Arthur Chaimberlain, of the influential Birmingham based Chamberlain family, contributed 50 guineas. Also in Birmingham, George Cadbury of the Bournville Quaker Cadbury family, made regular contributions of £10 on a weekly basis. Over the ten weeks of the strike it was hoped to raise £1000. In the event, nearly £4000 was raised, a very considerable amount of.

    A number of factors contributed to ending the strike in the women’s favour. The government, who of course had brought in the minimum wage through the Chain Board, agreed not to place any more contracts for chain with companies not paying the minimum wage. This was a serious issue for the CMA as such contracts, particularly for the army and navy, could be very lucrative. On the 2 September CMA member companies added their names to a list maintained by the Chain Board. This was known as the ‘White List’ and contained the names of companies paying the legal minimum wage. This was the turning point and gradually the names on the White List increased until the strike was finally over on the 22 October after the last remaining company had signed. The chain making women of Cradley Heath had won their minimum wage of 212d per hour, thanks mainly to Mary Macarthur and her unwavering belief in the justice of the cause.

    The strike fund had nearly £1500 pounds left in it when the strike ended. Mary Macarthur could have put that money in NFWW coffers but she didn’t. Instead, Mary proposed that the money be used for the construction of a Workers’ Institute. Not just for chainmakers but for all workers and families of Cradley Heath. It was to be both ‘a centre of social and industrial activity in the district’. Originally built on some wasteland where strike meetings had taken place it is now preserved at the Black Country Living Museum. It was opened in Cradley Heath by the Countess of Dudley on June 10, 1912. A lasting monument to the bravery of the chainmaking women who downed their hammers in 1910 and to Mary Reid Macarthur, their charismatic leader.

    Andrew Homer's new book A-Z of The Black Country is available for purchase now.

  • Locomotives of the Eastern United States by Christopher Esposito

    When I was asked to put together this book for Amberley, I knew it was going to be a challenge. After all, how does one comb through over 10,000 photos of trains and select the best images to present to readers? What lines to pick? What engine models?

    NS ES44DC 7716 leads 13R over the Potomac River as it crosses from Maryland into West Virginia on the H Line. Shepherdstown, WV. Taken on 26 October 2018. (Locomotives of the Eastern United States, Amberley Publishing)

    In this blog post, I’m going to give a behind-the-scenes look at how I arrived at the selection process for the images used in this book.

    The first thing I looked at was variety. Since the topic of the book is locomotives, I wanted to include as many different locomotive types as possible. With the monotony of modern diesel power in the form of EMD SD70 variants and GE GEVO models, this was no easy task. While I did not include EVERY type of engine currently in use, I feel the book presents a realistic look at what is currently used by the major railroads.

    The second criteria I used was scenery. The Eastern region of the United States can range from vast mountain regions around Pennsylvania and Virginia to virtually flat plains of red clay in the Carolinas. In my selections, I used shots I felt captured the flavor of each region:  the quaint countryside dotted with family farms in eastern Pennsylvania, the mountainous and gritty coal country of West Virginia, the dense and populated commuter towns in New Jersey, the urban setting of downtown Atlanta. It was key for me to not just show you, the reader an image of an EMD SD70ACe for instance, but to show it as part of the bigger picture. Too often, rail photographers will focus on the train and ignore the greater surrounding scenery.  By doing that, you tend to lose the feeling of the area in which you are shooting.

    Union Pacific GE AC44CW No. 6588 leads eastbound intermodal No. 234 through Waburn, VA on the ex-N&W main line as a light dusting of snow covers the ground. Taken on 13 March 2018. (Locomotives of the Eastern United States, Amberley Publishing)

    The third condition on my list was consistency. While I did make a few exceptions by including older photographs, I made a conscious decision to use only photographs taken with my current model of camera – the Nikon D4S. The quality of the image produced by the D4S really jumps out at you, and I wanted to use the best quality shots for this publication.

    My final point was to try and include an assortment of railroads that run on the east coast. Due to traffic density, line proximity and fitting in trackside time, the photos used in the book tend to favor the Norfolk Southern railroad. While the black and white scheme used on the NS diesels is nothing to write home about, I feel the settings in which the trains operate make up for the lack of color on the engines.

    I hope as you page through the photos in this book, it gives you a sense of not only the engines in use on today’s railroads, but also a glimpse into the regions of America these trains traverse and the industries they serve.

    Christopher Esposito's new book Locomotives of the Eastern United States is available for purchase now.

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